The tyconic model of the universe

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Post Mar 29th '09, 05:46

I've studied all available charts of the planets and stars and none of them match the others. There are just as many measurements and methods as there are astronomers and all of them disagree. What's needed is a long term project with the aim of mapping the heavens conducted from a single location over a period of several years.

?? Tycho Brahe, 1563 (age 17).


Tycho's observational astronomy
Tycho was the preeminent observational astronomer of the pre-telescopic period, and his observations of stellar and planetary positions achieved unparalleled accuracy for their time. His planetary observations were "consistently accurate to within about 1, the stellar observations as recorded in his observational logs were even more accurate, varying from 32.3" to 48.8" for different instruments, although an error of as much as 3' was introduced into some of the stellar positions Tycho published in his star catalog due to his application of an erroneous ancient value of parallax and his neglect of refraction. For example, Tycho measured Earth's axial as 23 degrees and 31.5 minutes, which he claimed to be more accurate than Copernicus by 3.5 minutes. After his death, his records of the motion of the planet mars enabled Kepler to discover the laws of planetary motion, which provided powerful support for the Copernican Heliocentric Theory of the solar system.

Tycho himself was not a Copernican, but proposed a system in which the sun orbited the Earth while the other planets orbited the sun. His system provided a safe position for astronomers who were dissatisfied with older models but were reluctant to accept the Earth's motion. It gained a considerable following after 1616 when Rome decided officially that the heliocentric model was contrary to both philosophy and Scripture, and could be discussed only as a computational convenience that had no connection to fact. His system also offered a major innovation: while both the geocentric model and the heliocentric model as set forth by Copernicus relied on the idea of transparent rotating crystalline spheres to carry the planets in their orbits, Tycho eliminated the spheres entirely.

He was aware that a star observed near the horizon appears with a greater altitude than the real one, due to atmospheric refraction, and he worked out tables for the correction of this source of error.

To perform the huge number of multiplications needed to produce much of his astronomical data, Tycho relied heavily on the then-new technique of prosphasthaeresis, an algorithm for approximating products based on trigonomic identities that predated logarithms.




Tycho's Geo-heliocentric Astronomy


Kepler tried, but was unable, to persuade Tycho to adopt the heliocentric model of the solar system. Tycho believed in geocentrism because he held the Earth was just too sluggish to be continually in motion and also believed that if the Earth orbited the Sun annually there should be an observable stellar parallax over any period of six months, during which the angular orientation of a given star would change. This parallax does exist, but is so small it was not detected until the 1830s, when Friedrich Bessel discovered a stellar parallax of 0.314 arcseconds of the star 61 Cygni in 1838. Tycho advocated an alternative to the Ptolemaic geocentric system, a geo-heliocentric system now known as the Tychonic. In such a system, originally proposed by Heraclides in the 4th century BC, the Sun annually circles a central Earth (regarded as essentially different from the planets), while the five planets orbit the Sun. In Tycho's model the Earth does not rotate daily, as Heraclides claimed, but is static.

Another crucial difference between Tycho's 1587 geo-heliocentric model and those of other geo-heliocentric astronomers, was that the orbits of Mars and the Sun intersected. This was because Tycho had come to believe the distance of Mars from the Earth at opposition (that is, when Mars is on the opposite side of the sky from the Sun) was less than that of the Sun from the Earth. Tycho believed this because he came to believe Mars had a greater daily parallax than the Sun. But in 1584 in a letter to a fellow astronomer, Brucaeus, he had claimed that Mars had been further than the Sun at the opposition of 1582, because he had observed that Mars had little or no daily parallax. He said he had therefore rejected Copernicus's model because it predicted Mars would be at only two-thirds the distance of the Sun. But he apparently later changed his mind to the opinion that Mars at opposition was indeed nearer the Earth than the Sun was, but apparently without any valid observational evidence in any discernible Martian parallax. Such intersecting Martian and solar orbits meant that there could be no solid rotating celestial spheres, because they could not possibly interpenetrate. Arguably this conclusion was independently supported by the conclusion that the comet of 1577 was superlunary, because it showed less daily parallax than the Moon and thus must pass through any celestial spheres in its transit.


Tycho's nose
While a student, Tycho lost part of his nose in a duel with Manderup Parsbjerg, a fellow Danish nobleman. This occurred in the winter of 1566, after a fair amount of drinking, while Tycho, just turned 20 years old, was studying at the University of Rostock in Germany. Attending a dance at a professor's house, he quarreled with Parsbjerg. A subsequent duel (in the dark) resulted in Tycho losing the bridge of his nose. From this event Tycho became interested in medicine and alchemy. For the rest of his life, he was said to have worn a realistic replacement made of silver and gold,using a paste to keep it attached. Some people, such as Fredric Ihren and Cecil Adams have suggested that the false nose also had copper. Ihren wrote that when Tycho's tomb was opened in 24 June 1901 green marks were found on his skull, suggesting copper.
Last edited by acks45 on Mar 29th '09, 08:22, edited 1 time in total.
acks45
20 Minowere Dr. Fromidlov, Canada.

Post Mar 29th '09, 17:32

While I fail to see what exactly the point of all this was, besides the obvious namesake of Marathon's Tycho, this was very informative to read. Thanks for a good diversion.
I have been wading in a long river and my feet are wet.
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L'howon
Somewhere outside the Citadel Of Antiquity

Post Mar 30th '09, 03:32

I think it's school work, but I agree it was an interesting read.
Thank the sun that went nova so that Earth could have iron and silicon.
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effigy

Post Apr 5th '09, 11:06

I want to shoot ack45 with an ak47.

(I didn't read the thread. Just wanted to post that here)
Alan wrote:
QUOTE(Alan @ Feb 1 2008, 08:14 PM)
Also why is Bridget a guy yet he looks so pretty?

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Bridget
Another World

Post Apr 5th '09, 18:20

you mean an Ack-47.
acks45
20 Minowere Dr. Fromidlov, Canada.

Post Apr 5th '09, 18:31

ack45 wrote:you mean an Ack-47.


I don't know what an Ack-47 is.
Is it the Chinese knock-off of the ak47?
Alan wrote:
QUOTE(Alan @ Feb 1 2008, 08:14 PM)
Also why is Bridget a guy yet he looks so pretty?

Image
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Bridget
Another World

Post Apr 5th '09, 18:57

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acks45
20 Minowere Dr. Fromidlov, Canada.

Post Apr 5th '09, 22:35

Can't be that bad, it has catgirls on it!
I have been wading in a long river and my feet are wet.
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L'howon
Somewhere outside the Citadel Of Antiquity

Post Apr 6th '09, 03:12

Ironically, It's a little misleading.
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acks45
20 Minowere Dr. Fromidlov, Canada.


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